Mohammad Sanaullah Al-Nadawi

Abstract

Purpose: The paper aims to discuss some segments of the colossal trajectory of Occidental discourses put forward by Hindus, Muslims and common cultural protagonists in India both in qualitative and quantitative parameters, which, although deeply trenched in history, has recourse to a plethora of historical factors that can hardly exclude white man’s colonial ambitions (Portuguese, French, English and others) enjoying his own choice of inclusion and exclusion. Such a legacy of Indian Occidentalism alongside its present scenario constitutes an academic discourse of immense magnitude, both quantitative and qualitative, that draws worldwide reckoning.
Methodology: The study employs an inductive method while subjecting cross-sections of the legacy of Indian Occidentalism to historicistic-evaluative perspectives to reckon with the Western other’s philosophical, cultural and social ambits.
Findings: The prominent findings augment plurality and differences in the textual or thematic analysis of the target sources due to the multiplicity of angles involved in the occidental corpus. However, the same is not as visible regarding addressing imperial benchmarks. The study also exhibits the applicability of occidental knowledge in some sociopolitical domains in India.
Originality: The scientific value of this paper can be gauged by the number of questions it poses—presumedly for the first time—in terms of methodological susceptibility, while Indian occidentalism in its religiophilosophical and cultural trilogy is seen, in retrospect, from original sources from objective and critical perspectives. Such questions are rife with potential dwindling factors in core areas of traditional occidentalism regarding critical evaluation.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Occidentalism
India
Europe
Missionaries
Vedic transcendentalism
European imperialism

References
Al-Ghauri, Syed Abd al-Mājīd. Iqbāl – al-‘Amāl al-Kāmīlah. (in Arabic). Beirut: Dār Ibn Kathīr, 2011.
Al-Ja’farī, Na’māt Moḥammad. “al-‘Uyūb al-manhajīyah fī sīyāq al-rīwayāt al-hadīthīyah ‘ind al-mustashrīq Montgomery Watt fī kītābaihī Mohammad fī Mecca wa Mohammad fī al-Madīnah. (in Arabic), Journal of Sharia and Islamic Studies, University of Kuwait, no. 97, p. 161 et seq.
Al-Jīlī, ‘Abd Al-Karīm. Kītāb al-Insān al-Kāmil fī ma’rīfat al-wākhir wa al-Awā’il, (in Arabic). Cairo: al-Bābī al-Ḥalabī, 1401 A.H.
Al-Khalīfī, ‘Abd Al-Hakīm b. Yusuf. “Falāṣīfat al-Islām wa al-tanvīr al-mafqūd- min al-mitaphysīca al-Ta’mmūlīyah ila waḥ̣dat al-wojūd”, Journal of Shariyah and Islamic Studies, University of Kuwait, no. 51, p. 421 et seq.
Al-Kairānavī, Raḥmatullah. Izhār al-Ḥaqq. (in Arabic). Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, n.d.
Al-Nadawī, ‘Abd al-Salām. Iqbāl é Kāmīl. (in Urdu), Azamgarh: Dār al-Muṣannīfīn, 1999.
Al-Nadawī, Muḥammad Thanā’allah. Al-Syed Aḥmad Khān wa ru’yatuhū lī al-Dīn. (in Arabic), Thaqaful Hind Quarterly. Delhi: Indian Council of Cultural Relations, vol. 41, no. 3 (1990).
–––––. Shu’rā wojoodiyūn min gharb asia. (in Arabic). Aligarh: Dār al-Adāb al-Insānīyah, 2004.
–––––. al-Ittījāhāt al-Wujūdīyyah fī al-Sh’ir al-‘Arabī al-Hadīth. (in Arabic). Aligarh: Muslim University Press, 2007.
Anderson, C. The Indian Uprising of 1857–8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion. London: Anthem Press, 2007.
Burton, Antoinette. Dwelling in the Archive: Women Writing, House, Home and History in Late Colonial India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Burke, Marie Louise. Swami Vivekananda in America: New Discoveries. Kolkata: Advaita Ashrama, 1958. ISBN 978-0-902479-99-9.
Burke, Marie Louise. Swami Vivekananda in the West: New Discoveries. Kolkata: Advaita Ashrama 1985. 3rd edition (Six volumes). ISBN 978-0-87481-219-0.
Dalrymple, William. White Mughals: Love and Betrayal in Eighteenth Century India. Penguin Books India, 2004.
D'Costa, Anthony, S.J. The Christianisation of the Goa Islands, 1510-1567. Bombay: Heras Institute, 1965.
du Jarric, Pierre. Akbar and the Jesuits. Translated with Introduction and Notes by C.H. Payne. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1926.
Emin, Joseph. Life and Adventures of Joseph Emin 1726-1809. Second edition with Portrait, Correspondence, Reproductions of original Letters and Map. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1918.
Faizī, Atīya. Zamāna é taḥsīl ya Roznāmcha, (in Urdu). Agra: Mufīd ‘Aām Press, 1921.
Fisher, Michael H., Counterflows to Colonialism: Indian Travellers and Settlers in Britain 1600-1857. Delhi: Permanent Black, 2004.
Garcia, Humberto. England Re-Oriented: How Central and South Asian Travelers Imagined the West, 1750-1857. Cambridge University Press, 2020. ISBN: 9781108862486.
Gidumal, Dayaram. The Life and Life-work of Behramji M. Malabari. 2nd ed. London: Fisher and Unwin, 1892.
Campbell, Gwyn. The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean, Africa and Asia (London: Routledge, 2004)
Ḥāmid, Al-Tījānī ‘Abd al-Qāder. “Ishkālīyah al-Qur’ān al-Makkī fī dīrāsāt al-Mustashriqīn”. In Journal of Sharia and Islamic Studies, University of Qatar. Volume 38, no. 1, https://doi.org/10.29117/cjsis.2020.0255.
Ḥanafī, Ḥasan. Muqaddīma fi ‘ilm al-Istīghrāb, (in Arabic). Cairo: al-Dār al-Fannīya lī al-Nashr wa al-Taudī’, 1991.
Harris, Jonathan Gil. First Firangis: Remarkable Stories of Heroes, Healers, Charlatans, Courtesans & Other Foreigners who became Indian. New Delhi: Aleph Book Company Pvt Ltd, 2015.
Hunter, William W. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. London: Trubner & Co, 1886.
Inwagen, Peter Van. Existence: Essays in Ontology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Iqbal, Mohammad. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. California: Stanford University Press, 2013.
Karkaria, Rustomji Pestonji. India, Forty Years of Progress and Reform: Being a Sketch of the Life and Times of Behramji M. Malabari. London: Henry Frowde, 1896.
Khān, Sir Syed Aḥmad. al-Khuṭbāt al-Aḥmadīyah fī al-‘Arab wa al-Sīrah al-Muḥammadīyyah. (in Urdu). Aligarh: Muslim University Press, 2004.
––––. Tab’īn al-kalām fi tafsīr al-Tawrāt wa al-Injīl ‘ala millah al-Islām. (in Urdu), Aligarh Muslim University Press, 2004.
––––. Tārīkh Sarkashī é Bijnor. (in Urdu). Edited by Shrafat Ḥūsain Mirza. Delhi: al-Jam’iat Press, 1964.
Khan, Mirza Abu Taleb. Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan in Asia, Africa and Europe. Translated into English by Charles Stewart. London: Longman, Hirst, Rees and Orme, 1814.
Kulke, Eckehard. The Parsis in India: A Minority as Agent of Social Change. New Delhi: Bell Books, 1978.
Mahomet, Sake Deen, 1759-1851, The Travels of Dean Mahomet: An Eighteenth-Century Journey through India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0-520-91851-1.
Makhdūm , Zain al-Dīn al-Ma’barī. Taḥriḍ ahl al-Imān ‘ala jīhad ‘abadat al-Ṣulbān. (in Arabic). In “Turāth al-Muqāwamah dhid al-Isti’mār” (in Arabic). Calicut: Farook College, 2008.
––––. Tuḥfat al-Mujāhīdīn (in Arabic), ed. by Mohammad Said al-Ṭūraihī. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Wafā, 1984.
Malabari, Behramji M. The Indian Eye on English Life – Rambles of Pilgrim Reformer. London: Westminster: Archibald Constable & Company, Publishers to the India Office. 1893.
Marshall, T. W. M. Christian Missions Their Agents, Their Methods, and Their Results. Vol. 1. London: Burns and Lambert,1862.
Menant, Delphine. "Influence of Max Müller's Hibbert Lectures in India", The American Journal of Theology (1907), 11 (2).
Mohanroy, Rajaram. The English Works of Rajaram Mohanroy with English translation of Tuhfatul Muwahhiddin. Bahadur Gunj Allahabad: The Panini House, printed at Indian Press 1905.
Muir, William. A Life of Mahomet and History of Islam to the Era of the Hegira. 1858-1862. London: Smith, Elder and Co, 1861. 4 Vols.
Muir, William. The Mohammedan Controversy: Biographies of Mohammed, Sprenger on Tradition, The Indian Liturgy, and the Psalter Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1897.
Mojumdar, R. C. The History and Culture of the Indian People (Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan).
Newsletter of the Spanish Geographical Society. 43.
Panikkar, K. M. Malabar and the Portuguese: being a history of the relations of the Portuguese with Malabar from 1500 to 1663. New Delhi: Voice of India, 2016.
Priolkar, A. K. The Goa Inquisition. Bombay: Mombay University, 1961.
Qāsīm, Mahmūd. Nadharīyyat al-‘Ilm ‘inda Ibn Rushd wa Ta’wīluhā lada Thomas Aquinas. (in Arabic). Cairo: Maktaba al-Anglo al-Mīṣrīyah, n.d.
Raeymaekers, Dries & Derks, Sebastiaan. The Key to Power: The Culture of Access in Princely Courts, 1400-1750. Rulers and Elites: Comparative Studies in Governance. Leiden: Brill, 2016. ISBN 9789004304246.
Ranke, Leopold. The History of the Popes, Their Church and State, in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Translated by Kelly, Walter Keating. London: George Routledge and Company, 1852.
Rev Lorbeer, H. Memoires of Rev. W. Ziemann. Benares: The Medical Hall Press, 1882.
Rev Pfander, C.G., D.G. Mizan ul Haqq or Balancing of Truth. Translated into English by The Rev R.H. Weakly Missionary at Constantinople. London: Church Missionary House, Salisbury Square, 1866.
Shervānī, Abd al-Shāhīd. Bāghī Hindustān. (in Urdu). Bijnor: Akhbār Press, 1947.
Samuel P Huntington. The Clash of Civilizations and Emergence of World Order. Penguin India, 1997.
Sanaullah, Mohd. “Beyond Hagiography: The Great Saint of Ajmer Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti”. In Proceedings of the International Interfaith Dialogue Seminar. K.J. Somaiya Bharatiya Sanskriti Peetham, Mumbai, 4-7 Jan, 2008, pp. 337-366, ISBN 978-81-7039-272-9.
Sanaullah, Mohd. “A Synergy between Yoga and Sufi Sadhna”. In Dilip Karambelkar, Kala Acharya and Mariano Iturbe (eds), Universal Brotherhood Through Yoga. Somaiya Publications Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai and New Delhi. Pp. 463-470. ISBN: 978-81-7039-306-1.
Sanaullah, Mohd. “Arab-Muslim Impressions in the Romance Literature”, Hamdard Islamicus. Vol. XXIX, no. I, January-March, 2006. Pp. 45-66. ISSN 02507196.
Sanaullah, Mohd. “Andalusian Seers, sufi cristiano and cultimso”, Hamdard Islamicus. Oct-Dec 2007. Pp. 7-73. ISSN 02507196.
Sanaullah, Mohd. “Spiritualism in South Asia: Aspects of Inter and Intra-Cultural Gnostic Sufi Mingling in the Indian Sub-Continent”. In Islam in South Asia. Proceedings of International Symposium on Islamic Civilization in South Asia. Edited by Halit Eren. Istanbul: IRCICA, 2013, pp. 179-196. ISBN 9789290632603.
Sanaullah, Mohd. “Elements of Yoga in Sufism”. In History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. General Editor: D. P. Chattopadhyaya, Vol. XVI, Part 2 History of Yoga, edited by S.P. Singh. New Delhi: PHIPCS-Centre for Studies in Civilizations, 2010. ISBN 81-87586-44-3, pp. 629-652.
Sanaullah, Mohd. “Man, Cosmos and God in the philosophical summae of Islam”. In Proceedings of the International Interfaith Dialogue Seminar, K. J. Somaiya Bharatiya Sanskriti Peetham, Somaiya Vidyavihar Campus, Mumbai, on 7th to 11th September 2009, pp. 99-132, ISBN 978-81-7039-276-7.
Sanaullah, Mohd. “Perspectives on the concept of basic elements in Islam”. In The Cosmic Elements in Religion, Philosophy Art and Literature, by Kala Acharya, Ignacio Arellano, Mariano Iturbe, Prachi Pathak, Rudraksha Sakriker (eds), Servicio de Publicationes de la Universidad Navarra, 2015. Biadeg. Biblioteca Aurea Digital del Grisco. 34. ISBN 978-84-8081-481-2.
Sanaullah, Mohammad. “Symbolic Islamo-European Encounter in Prosody: Muwashshaḥāt, Azjāl and the Catalan Troubadours”, Islamic Studies (Pakistan), vol. 49, no. 3 Autumn 1431/2010, pp. 357-400. ISSN 0578-8072.
Saraiva, Antonio Jose. The Marrano Factory. The Portuguese Inquisition and Its New Christians, 1536–1765. Leiden: AJ Brill, 2001.
Sinai, N. “Historical Criticism and Recent Trends in Western Scholarship on the Qur’an: Some Hermeneutic Reflections”, Journal of College of Sharia and Islamic Studies, Vol. 38, Issue I, 2020. https://doi.org/10.29117/jcsis.2020.0259.
Sen, Amrit. The Persian Prince in London: Autoethnography and Positionality in Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan. Asiatic Research (June 2008), 2 (1).
Singh, Sardar Jogendra. B. M. Malabari: Rambles with the Pilgrim Reformer. London: Bell and Sons, 1914.
Tāhā, ‘Azīz ‘Alī. “Ṣowarun min ifitira’āt al-mustashrīq Graham’ alā al-Aḥādith al-Qudsīyyah” (in Arabic), Journal of Shariyah and Islamic Studies, University of Kuwait. no. 21, p. 99 et seq.
Times (London), 4 April 1911.

*****************************************************************************************************************************************

أولًا: المصادر والمراجع العربيّة
إقبال، محمد. تجديد الفكر الديني في الإسلام، ترجمة عباس محمود العقاد. القاهرة: دار الهداية.
الجعفري، نعمات محمد. "العيوب المنهجية في سياق الروايات الحديثية عند المستشرق مونتجمري في كتابيه (محمد في مكة)، و(محمد في المدينة)"، مجلة الشريعة والدراسات الإسلامية، جامعة الكويت، ع. 97.
الجيلي، عبد الكريم. كتاب الإنسان الكامل في معرفة الأواخر والأوائل. البابي الحلبي، ط. 4، 1981.
حامد، التجاني عبد القادر. "إشكالية القرآن المكي في دراسات المستشرقين"، مجلة كلية الشريعة والدراسات الإسلامية، جامعة قطر، م. 38، ع. 1.
حنفي، حسن. مقدمة في علم الاستغراب. القاهرة: الدار الفنية للنشر والتوزيع، 1991.
خان، سر سيد أحمد. تاريخ سركشي بجنور (بالأردية)، تحقيق: شرافت حسين مرزا. دلهي: مطبعة الجمعية، 1964م.
––––. تبيين الكلام في تفسير التوراة والإنجيل على ملة الإسلام. الهند: مطبوعات مجمع سر سيد، جامعة علي كره الإسلامية، 2004م.
––––. الخطبات الأحمدية في العرب والسيرة المحمدية (بالأردية). الهند: مطبوعات مجمع سر سيد، جامعة علي كره الإسلامية، 2004
الخليفي، عبد الحكيم بن يوسف. "فلاسفة الإسلام والتنوير المفقود – من الميتافيزيقا التأملية إلى وحدة الوجود"، مجلة الشريعة والدراسات الإسلامية، جامعة الكويت، ع. 51.
شرواني، عبد الشاهد خان. باغ هندوستان (بالأردية). مطبعة أخبار بجنور، 1947.
طه، عزيز علي. "صور من افتراءات المستشرق جراهام على الأحاديث القدسية"، مجلة الشريعة والدراسات الإسلامية، جامعة الكويت، ع. 21.
الغوري، سيد عبد الماجد. إقبال – الأعمال الكاملة. بيروت: دار ابن كثير، 2011.
فيضي، عطية. زمانه تحصيل (بالأردية)، يوميات. 1907م
قاسم، محمود. نظرية المعرفة عند ابن رشد وتأويلها لدى توماس الأكويني. القاهرة: مكتبة الإنجلو المصرية (د.ت)
الكيرانوي الهندي، رحمة الله بن خليل الرحمن. إظهار الحق. بيروت: دار الجيل (د. ت).
المخدوم، زين الدين بن علي المليباري. تحريض أهل الإيمان على جهاد عبدة الصلبان، تراث المقاومة ضد الاستعمار. كاليكوت: كلية فاروق، 2008.
––––. تحفة المجاهدين، تحقيق محمد سعيد الطريحي. بيروت: مؤسسة الوفاء، 1984.
الندوي، عبد السلام. إقبال كامل "بالأردية". أعظم كره: دار المصنفين، 1999.
الندوي، محمد ثناء الله، الاتجاهات الوجوديّة في الشعر العربي الحديث. جامعة علي كره الإسلامية، 2007.
––––. "السيد أحمد خان ورؤيته للدين"، مجلة ثقافة الهند، المجلس الهندي للعلاقات الثقافية، دلهي، السنة 41، ع. 3 (2009)
––––. شعراء وجوديون من غرب آسيا. علي كره: دار الآداب الإنسانية، 2004.
How to Cite
Al-Nadawi محمد ثناء الله. 2021. “In Retrospect: Indian Occidentalism, Reference Corpus and Questions of Specificity”. Journal of College of Sharia &Amp; Islamic Studies 39 (2). https://doi.org/10.29117/jcsis.2021.0305.
Section
Articles in Arabic