الشريعة الإسلامية والتحكيم في دول الخليج العربي – الطريق مفتوح

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آمال كامل عبد الله

الملخص

بالرغم من وجود بيئة تشريعية متوافقة مع أحدث النصوص الدولية الصادرة في مجال التحكيم في أغلب دول الخليج العربي، مثل القانون النموذجي للجنة الأمم المتحدة للقانون التجاري الدولي 1985؛ إلا أن عدم وضوح المفهوم الحقيقي للشريعة الإسلامية، كجزء من النظام العام، وكذلك عدم وضوح موقفها من بعض الأمور المتعلقة بالتحكيم، يجعل منها، في نظر بعض المستثمرين والقانونيين الأجانب، عائقًا محتملًا أمام إمكانية تنفيذ أحكام التحكيم الوطنية والأجنبية في دول الخليج العربي، حيث يمكن الاستناد إلى قواعدها؛ للطعن بالبطلان في حكم التحكيم لمخالفته للنظام العام.


يهدف البحث إلى بيان خطأ الاعتقاد بكون الشريعة الإسلامية عائقًا أمام التحكيم في دول الخليج العربي، من خلال توضيح موقف التحكيم في المفهوم الحقيقي للشريعة الإسلامية، كجزء من النظام العام. كما يتناول الدور الفعلي للشريعة الإسلامية، كأساس للطعن ببطلان أحكام التحكيم، من خلال بيان موقفها، وموقف التشريعات الخليجية من بعض المسائل التي قد تبدو، لأول وهلة، مخالفة للشريعة، مثل؛ ديانة المحكم، وتحكيم المرأة، وفوائد الديون، وعقود الغرر.

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الكلمات المفتاحية

التحكيم
الشريعة الإسلامية
النظام العام
بطلان حكم التحكيم
ديانة المحكم
جنس المحكم
التفسير المرن لقواعد الشريعة

القسم
الأبحاث باللغة الإنجليزية
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Legislations & Conventions:
UAE Civil Procedures Law No.11/1992
Civil & Commercial Procedures Law in Bahrain- No.12/1971
Civil & Commercial Procedures Law in Qatar- No.13/1992
Civil & Commercial Procedures Law in Oman- No.29/2002, Art (23) of Civil & Commercial Procedures Law in Kuwait- No.38/1980
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Omani Constitution 1996
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Kuwaiti Constitution 1962
Bahraini Constitution 2002
Qatari Constitution 2004
Omani Commercial Code No.55/1990
UAE Civil Code-No. 5/1985
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Omani Civil Code – No. 29/2013
Kuwaiti Civil Code No. 67/1980
Qatari Civil Code No. 22/2004
Bahraini Civil Code – No. 19/2001
Egyptian Civil Code- No. 131/1948
Syrian Civil Code- No. 84/1949
Jordanian Civil Code No. 43/1976
Omani Judicial Authority Act-No. 90/1999
Federal Judicial Authority Act of UAE No. 3/1983
Kuwaiti Judicial Authority Act No. 23/1990
Bahraini Judicial Authority Act No. 22/2002
Qatari Judicial Authority Act No. 10/2003
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Convention of the Recognition and Enforcement of Arbitral Awards 1958
Convention of the settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States
Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Drafted by the UN Commission on Human Rights 1948
Cases:
Harris Adacom Corp v. Perkom Sdn Bhd [1994] 3 MLJ 504
Jivraj (Appellant) v Hashwani (Respondent) [2011] UKSC 40
UAE Court of Cassation, No. 150/ 2014
Decision of Egyptian High Constitutional Court, case No. 47 issued on 21/12/1985
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Decision of the Saudi Administrative Court of Appeal in Dammam on May 10, 2016
Websites:
https://uncitral.un.org/en/texts/arbitration/modellaw/commercial_arbitration
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www.pewforum.org
http://epublications.bond.edu.au/
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