Maher M. Abu-Hilal Mohammad Al-Qadahat Sulaiman Al-Maamari


The aim of this study was to test the structure of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and explore if the structure is invariant across school students (n=365) and university students (n=119). Previous research has shown that self-esteem so as other personality traits are developmental in nature; and self-esteem becomes more differentiated and realistic with age. Two samples responded to RSES which has 10 items half of which was written in the positive format and the other half in negative format. RSES showed reasonable internal consistency, especially among university students. Also, the scale produced a reasonable structure among both groups as the items measured the factor substantially. Item loadings were invariant across the two groups. However, other parameters (intercepts, residuals and correlations among residuals) were not invariant indicating that the items measured the trait equally valid for school and university students. However, the level of self-esteem as indicated by item scores was not invariant as school children scored higher than university students in most of the items. The results imply that using negative items has an effect on both the structure and magnitude of self-esteem. Scale developers and users may need to be cautioned when they interpret the resultant scores of scales with positive and negative items.


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factor structure
wording style
school students
university students

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How to Cite
Abu-Hilal , Maher M., Mohammad Al-Qadahat, and Sulaiman Al-Maamari. 2021. “The Factor Structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Among School Students and University Students in Oman”. Journal of Educational Sciences 17 (17).
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